Commonly used definitions
Hormones needed for breast growth
are a group of compounds named for their importance in both menstrual and estrous reproductive cycles. They are the primary female sex hormones. Natural estrogens are steroid hormones, while some synthetic ones are non-steroidal.
-also known as somatotropin or somatropin, is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth, cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. It is a type of mitogen which is specific only to certain kinds of cells. Growth hormone is a 191-amino acid, single-chain polypeptide that is synthesized, stored, and secreted by somatotropic cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland.
Prolactin (PRL), also known as lactotrope, is a protein that in humans is probably best known for its role in enabling female mammals to produce milk, increases fat stores in the breasts. Massaging breasts stimulates prolactin.
Progesterone is produced in the ovaries (by the corpus luteum), the adrenal glands (near the kidney), and, during pregnancy, in the placenta. Progesterone is also stored in adipose (fat) tissue. but it can also be increased through the use of natural progesterone cream, which is derived from soy or wild yam. PC can be useful for bio-males
-is converted into estrogen by a process called aromatase. The aromatase process takes place in the body’s fat cells, which create a special substance called an aromatase enzyme which converts excess testosterone into estrogen.
Different types of Androgens-
- Testosterone is the most abundant of these steroid hormones but is not the most potent androgen.
- Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is the most active form of androgens and most if not all of testosterone is eventually converted into DHT.
- Androstenedione (andro) is produced by the testes, adrenal cortex and a small amount by the ovaries.
- Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is another prominent androgen secreted by the adrenal cortex.
- Free testosterone-is a term that refers to the amount of usable testosterone in the bloodstream (unbound) and can interact with its receptor. Free testosterone only accounts for 1-4 percent of the testosterone in a typical male's bloodstream.
- (5-ar) also known as 5 alpha reductase - converts testosterone into dht. (5 ar is an enzyme)
Produce several hormones including cortisol and DHEA. These glands take over at menopause to become the main source of all hormone production in the body.
Also known as low adrenal reserve or adrenal insufficiency, leading to adrenal fatique. This condition occurs when the adrenals no longer produce enough hormone to meet bodily demand and is a result of prolonged stress (emotional, viral, physical). Adrenal support includes adequate rest, exercise, nutrition, and supplementation with physician guidance.
also called androgenic hormone or testoid, is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of male characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors.
Excessive androgens, relative to inadequate estrogen or progesterone levels, that are produced endogenously (within the body) or with supplementation can lead to symptoms of acne, increased facial/body hair, and loss of scalp hair.
-or androgen antagonists, first discovered in the 1960s, prevent androgens from expressing their biological effects on responsive tissues.Antiandrogens alter the androgen pathway by blocking the appropriate receptors, competing for binding sites on the cell's surface, or affecting androgen production.
An enzyme involved in the production of estrogen that acts by catalyzing the conversion of testosterone (an androgen) to estradiol (an estrogen).
(AIs) are a class of drugs used in the treatment of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in postmenopausal women. They may also be used off-label to treat or prevent gynaecomastia in men.
Aromatase is the enzyme that synthesizes estrogen. As breast and ovarian cancers require estrogen to grow, AIs are taken to either block the production of estrogen or block the action of estrogen on receptors.
Also called male menopause. Occurs as male hormones, testosterone and DHEA, decrease with age.
(Lymphatic breast massage) Lymphatic breast massage is a type of breast massage designed to stimulate lymphatic movement in the breast tissue.
Massage should not be done roughly. To support this theory, nipple stimulation does cause the pituitary gland to release prolactin.
Hormones derived from natural plant compounds (e.g., soy) and synthesized to duplicate the exact structure and function of hormones produced naturally within the body.
Produced by the adrenal glands, this hormone regulates the stress response, glucose metabolism, and immune function. Cortisol has a catabolic (breaking down) action on tissue when levels are too high or out of balance, leading to low immunities, allergies, and stress-related illness.
The most potent androgen, destroys fat, and masculinizes.
DHEA - Dehydroepiandrosterone -
Building block hormone for everything else.
Down-Regulation (of Receptor Sites)-
A negative feedback cycle, due to excess hormone levels, that results in tissue desensitization and loss of cellular receptor sites wherever hormones bind to cells.
Estrogens (E1), (E2), (E3)
(E1)-Estrone (E1, and also oestrone) is an estrogenic hormone secreted by the ovary as well as adipose tissue,Estrone is the least abundant of the three hormones; estradiol is present almost always in the reproductive female body, and estriol is abundant primarily during pregnancy. (E2),Estradiol is about 10 times as potent as estrone and about 80 times as potent as estriol in its estrogenic effect (E3) Estriol is only produced in significant amounts during pregnancy as it is made by the placenta.
-are a group of proteins found inside cells. They are receptors that are activated by the hormone estrogen (17β-estradiol).
ERs are widely expressed in different tissue types, however there are some notable differences in their expression patterns.
ERα is found in endometrium, breast cancer cells, ovarian stromal cells, and the hypothalamus. In males, ERα protein is found in the epithelium of the efferent ducts.
ERβ protein has been documented in ovarian granulosa cells, kidney, brain, bone, heart, lungs, intestinal mucosa, prostate, and endothelial cells.
Different ligands may differ in their affinity for alpha and beta isoforms of the estrogen receptor:
- 17-beta-estradiol binds equally well to both receptors
- estrone, bind preferentially to the alpha receptor
- estriol, and genistein to the beta receptor
The group of glands that produce the majority of the body’s hormones.
An excess of estrogen in the absence of adequate levels of progesterone in women (or testosterone in men). It can result from estrogen replacement therapy, menopause, hysterectomy, birth control pills, and/or a decline in ovarian progesterone production. In men, it can result from reduced testosterone production by the testes. In either gender, it can result from exposure to pollutants and toxins (xenoestrogens). The constellation of symptoms ranges from breast tenderness and bloating, to mood swings and depression. Excess estrogens are a risk factor for the development of breast and prostrate cancers.
is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils, aetherolea, or simply as the "oil of" the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An oil is "essential" in the sense that it carries a distinctive scent, or essence, of the plant. Essential oils do not form a distinctive category for any medical, pharmacological, or culinary purpose. They are not essential for health.
(FSH) is a hormone found in humans and other animals. It is synthesized and secreted by gonadotrophs of the anterior pituitary gland. FSH regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation and, reproductive processes of the body. FSH and, luteinizing hormone (LH) act synergistically in reproduction.
Free Testosterone Index-
Ratio between the amount of testosterone and SHBG (the protein that binds up available testosterone). Indicates the amount of bioavailable, free testosterone.
are produced by the adrenal glands to temporarily inhibit hormonal responses and fertility. Stress causes glucocorticoids to signal the production of GnIH, and the reduction of GnRH.
tapes are marketed for breast enlargement, but there is little scientific study on this. It claims to work on the mind, to allow it to create the hormones necessary for mammary enlargement.
Human Equivalent Dose-
The term human equivalent is used in a number of different contexts. This term can refer to human equivalents of various comparisons of animate and inanimate things.
(IGF-1 or Somatomedin C)
The most reliable indicator of human growth hormone levels. Low levels indicate Human Growth Hormone Deficiency associated with premature aging, decreased muscle and bone mass, slowing cognitive ability, low libido, and overall reduced quality of life.
are a class of flavonoid phenolic compounds. They are biologically active compounds, such as phytoestrogens, produced by pea family plants.
(LH, also known as lutropin and sometimes lutrophin) is a hormone produced by gonadotroph cells in the anterior pituitary gland. In females, an acute rise of LH ("LH surge") triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum. In males, where LH had also been called interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH), it stimulates Leydig cell production of testosterone. It acts synergistically with FSH.
-Stationary magnet therapy claims to affect the energy level of the breasts to cause growth. There is some evidence to suggest that stationary magnet therapy has general health benefits. Magnets have been shown to dilate or constrict blood vessels to normalize their width.
is a phytoestrogen, a plant-derived chemical that mimics the biological activity of the hormone estrogen. Miroestrol was first reportedly isolated from the Thai herb Pueraria mirifica in 1960 and thought to be responsible for the supposed rejuvenating properties of the plant. However, more recent studies have suggested that the active ingredient may actually be the closely related chemical compound deoxymiroestrol (shown below), and the reported presence of miroestrol may only have been an artifact of the isolation procedure. When deoxymiroestrol is exposed to the oxygen in air, it is converted to miroestrol.
-Also called "dietary estrogens", they are a diverse group of naturally occurring nonsteroidal plant compounds that, because of their structural similarity with estradiol (17-β-estradiol), have the ability to cause estrogenic or/and antiestrogenic effects, antiestrogenic effects by sitting in and blocking receptor sites against estrogen.
refers to a committed intra-glandular precursor of a hormone, usually having minimal hormonal effect by itself. The term has been used in medical science since the middle of the 20th century. Though not hormones themselves, prohormones amplify the effects of existing hormones. Examples of natural, human prohormones include proinsulin and pro-opiomelanocortin.
is a drug, herb, or chemical that intensifies the effects of a
On the LD50 test (which measures the dosage that would kill laboratory animals after 14 days, expressed in weight of material per kilogram of body weight), simple water scores a 16.
Sex hormone-binding globulin
(SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to sex hormones, to be specific, androgens and estrogens. Other steroid hormones such as progesterone, cortisol, and other corticosteroids are bound by transcortin.
is the biological process by which steroids are generated from cholesterol and transformed into other steroids.[The pathways of steroidogenesis differ between different species – as an example the pathways of human steroidogenesis are shown in this figure below: The major classes of steroid hormones and some prominent members of the human steroidogenesis are:
are a type of xenohormone that imitates estrogen. They can be either synthetic or natural chemical compounds. Synthetic xenoestrogens are widely used industrial compounds, such as PCBs, BPA and phthalates, which have estrogenic effects on a living organism even though they differ chemically from the estrogenic substances produced internally by the endocrine system of any organism.